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Reference list

Image with an author

Author A. Title [format]. Year of publication. Date range. Item description. Location retrieved. Notes about item

21. Rossett A. Knees, CT scan [Photograph]. Science Photo Library, Universal Images Group. Encyclopedia Britannica Imagequest. 3d scan. internal cat scan, medical examination.

Image without an author

Title [format]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication. Item description

22. Anatomical model showing the ventral axial skeleton [Photograph].USA: Universal Images Group; [date unknown]. Ribcage, manubrium sterni, collarbone, no people, anatomical model.


Rossett (21) .................................

3D internal image of knee

Image 2. 3D knee scan (21).

The ............................... (22) shows...


  • Vancouver is a numbered system. All sources appearing in the reference list are listed in the order that they are first cited in the text (not alphabetically)
  • The reference list is a numbered list and should be single spaced with one line space between each entry
  • Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document. Use no more than two initials
  • The citations here use round brackets, but square brackets, [1], or superscript¹ may also be used
  • The citation numbers are static. The same number should be used for the same source each time it is cited
  • Capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title only. The first word of the subtitle is not capitalised
  • In the In-text citation, the image number is the number in your assessment, not the number in the original document
  • For multiple authors, check the author layout table for in-text and Reference List format