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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our examples are based on the following style guide:

Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-. Available from:

You can ause the Academic Skills Unit’s LEO resources on academic writing, referencing and academic integrity to develop your skills. There are workshops and consultations available where you can get help.

General Notes

  • Vancouver is a numbered system. All sources appearing in the reference list are listed in the order that they are first cited in the text (not alphabetically)
  • The reference list is a numbered list and should be single spaced with one line space between each entry
  • Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document. Use no more than two initials
  • The citations here use round brackets, but square brackets, [1], or superscript¹ may also be used
  • The citation numbers are static. The same number should be used for the same source each time it is cited
  • Capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title only. The first word of the subtitle is not capitalised
  • Capitalise the "v" in Volume for a book title
  • For multiple authors, check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format
  • Check the sample reference list for guidance on the complete list