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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our examples are based on the following style guide:

Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-. Available from:

You can also use resources from the Academic Skills Unit on: referencing basicsVancouver referencingacademic integrity and academic writing to develop your skills. Workshops and consultations are also offered.

General Notes

  • Vancouver is a numbered system. All sources appearing in the reference list are listed in the order that they are first cited in the text (not alphabetically)
  • The reference list is a numbered list and should be single spaced with one line space between each entry
  • Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document. Use no more than two initials
  • The citations here use round brackets, but square brackets, [1], or superscript¹ may also be used
  • The citation numbers are static. The same number should be used for the same source each time it is cited
  • Capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title only. The first word of the subtitle is not capitalised
  • Capitalise the "v" in Volume for a book title
  • For multiple authors, check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format
  • Check the sample reference list for guidance on the complete list