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In-text & Reference list

Author layout: In-text and Reference list

No. of Authors Author Prominent Citation Information Prominent Citation Reference list
One According to Hall (1) Tissue stretching helps joint flexibility. (1)

1.   Hall S. Basic Biomechanics. 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2012

Two In Chapter 7, Coombes and Skinner (2) explain... The importance of neuromuscular strength in sports is variable. (2)

2.   Coombes J, Skinner T. ESSA's Student manual for health, exercise and sport assessment. Chatswood (NSW): Elsevier; 2014

Three -Six Brown et al. (3) claim that... Joint flexibility is only partially impacted by heredity. (3)

3.    Brown SP, Miller WC, Eason JM. Exercise physiology: Basis of human movement in health and disease. Baltimore (USA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006

Seven or more Enkin et al. (4) caution that... Pregnant women need social support. (4)

4.   Enkin M, Keirse MJ, Neilson J, Crowther C, Duley L, Hodnett E, et al. A guide to effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000


  • In these examples, square brackets have been used for the in-text citations. Superscript and round brackets can also be used
  • For 3-6 authors, all of the author names are listed in the reference list, but '' is used in the citations
  • For more than six authors, the first six are listed in the reference list, followed by ''

Secondary citation

Reference list

Reference the secondary source using the usual reference list format.

6. Gorber SC. Tremblay MS. Self-report and direct Measures of health: bias and implications. In: Shephard R. Tudor-Locke C. editors. The objective monitoring of physical activity: contributions of accelerometry to epidemiology, exercise science and rehabilitation. Switzerland: Springer; 2016.p.369-376. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-29577-0_14.


Gorber and Tremblay (6)......................................


  • Use the original source where possible
  • In the reference list, provide the details of the source in which you found the quotation or idea
  • Be clear in your assessment that you are referring to a secondary source
  • For multiple authors, check the author layout table for in-text and Reference List format