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Dissertations or theses

Reference list

[#] A. A. Author,  "Title of thesis," dissertation/thesis, Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, Country, year. [Online]. Available: site/path/file

[4] S. S. Rizvi, "Social enterprise: Applicability of the competitor identification framework,"  M.S. thesis, Fac. Law & Bus., Aust. Catholic Univ., Sydney, NSW, 2015, doi:10.4226/66/5a9cb6c7b0b78.

[3] M. C. Hastings, "Secure multi-party computation in practice," Ph.D. dissertation,  Dept. Comput. & Eng. Sci., Univ. Penn., Philadelphia, PA, 2021. [Online]. Available: ProQuest One Academic.


Rizvi [4] argues that …

As demonstrated previously [3]


  • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and subtitle.
  • Use the term 'Ph.D. dissertation' or 'M.S. thesis'.
  • Abbreviate name of  Academic Department, Faculty or College that awarded the Ph.D. dissertation or the M.S. thesis.
  • Do not place a full stop at the end of a URL.
  • Only the author's initials are included. Use no more than two initials.
  • The citation numbers are static. The same number should be used for the same source each time it is cited.
  • For multiple authors, check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format.