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In-text & Reference list

Author layout: In-text and Reference list

No. of authors In-text citation Alternate in-text citation Reference list
One Rahman (2016, p. 49) claims that... (Rahman 2016, p. 49) Rahman, AR 2016. The Australian accounting standards review board: the establishment of its participative review process, Routledge, London.
Two Boxall and Purcell (2016, p. 135) have argued... (Boxall & Purcell 2016, p. 135) Boxall, PF & Purcell, J 2016, Strategy and human resource management, 4th edn, Palgrave, London.
Three Pride, Hughes and Kapoor (2012, p. 109) state that... (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor 2012, p. 109) Pride, WM, Hughes, RJ & Kapoor, JR 2012, Business, 11th edn, Cengage Learning, Mason, OH
Four or more Hoggett et al. (2015, p. 23) demonstrate that... (Hoggett et al. 2015, p. 23) Hoggett, J, Edwards, L, Medlin, J, Chalmers, K, Hellmann, A, Beattie, C, Maxfield, J & Helmkamp, J 2015, Accounting, Wiley, Milton, QLD
Groups In a recent report, the World Bank (2015) showed that... (World Bank, 2015) World Bank 2015, Global Monitoring Report 2014/2015: ending poverty and sharing prosperity, The World Bank, London


  • Author names should be cited in the same order that they appear in the original source
  • When using in-text citations, if the author's names form part of the sentence, use "and" between author surnames. If the authors' names are in brackets, use "&".
  • The names of group as authors are usually written in full each time they appear in the text. However, if they are long and the abbreviation is familiar, the abbreviation can be used for subsequent citations.
  • The reference list should contain a cross reference for the abbreviated name to the full name entry, e.g.: OECD - see Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • Page numbers only need to be included in the In-text citation if a direct quote has been used.

Secondary citation

Reference list

Follows the reference list style for the source you are using

Maheshwari, A 2014, Business intelligence and data mining, Business Expert Press, New York, viewed 12 October 2018, Ebook central.


.................... (Martin, cited in Maheshwari 2014)


  • Secondary citations are when the work of one author (the primary source) has been either summarised or directly quoted in another author’s work (the secondary source). You must cite the source you have accessed
  • Always use the original source whenever possible
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format