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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our information and examples are based on the MHRA Style Guide, 2020. It is set by the Modern Humanities Research Association.

You can use the Academic Skills Unit’s LEO resources on academic writing, and academic integrity to develop these skills. Workshops and consultations are also available.

General Notes

  • MHRA uses the footnote citation style of referencing
  • A number in superscript is used in text to cite a work, and the full details of the work are available in the footnote at the end of the page
  • The number in superscript should be placed at the end of a sentence after the punctuation
  • The title of books and journals is always in italics
  • All words in the title and subtitle are capitalized, except articles and prepositions
  • If the book is not a first edition, place the edition number after the title of a book, e.g. Book Title, 3rd edn
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for footnote and bibliography format
  • Check the sample bibliography for guidance on the complete list