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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our information and examples are based on the following style guide: MHRA Style Guide, 2020. It is set by the Modern Humanities Research Association.

You can also use resources from the Academic Skills Unit on: referencing basicsacademic integrity and academic writing to develop your skills. Workshops and consultations are also offered.

General Notes

  • MHRA uses the footnote citation style of referencing
  • A number in superscript is used in text to cite a work, and the full details of the work are available in the footnote at the end of the page
  • The number in superscript should be placed at the end of a sentence after the punctuation
  • The title of books and journals is always in italics
  • All words in the title and subtitle are capitalized, except articles and prepositions
  • If the book is not a first edition, place the edition number after the title of a book, e.g. Book Title, 3rd edn
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for footnote and bibliography format
  • Check the sample bibliography for guidance on the complete list