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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our examples are based on the IEEE Reference Guide (2022) from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. See also the IEEE Editorial Style Manual for Authors (2022).

You can use the Academic Skills Unit’s LEO resources on academic writing, and academic integrity to develop these skills. There are workshops and consultations available where you can get help.

General Notes

  • IEEE is a numbered referencing system
  • In-text citations are given a number and enclosed in square brackets e.g., [1] directly after the summary or quote
  • A reference list containing the full details of in-text citations is placed at the end of a paper.
  • The citations in the reference list are arranged in the order they are cited in the paper (not alphabetically)
  • The citation numbers are static. The same number should be used for the same source each time it is cited
  • The reference list should be single spaced with double spaces between each entry
  • For multiple authors, check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format
  • Check the sample reference list for guidance on the complete list