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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our information and examples are based on the following style guide: Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook. 8th ed., The Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

The MLA Style Centre has more detailed information and useful FAQs.

You can also use resources from the Academic Skills Unit on: referencing basics, MLA referencingacademic integrity and academic writing to develop your skills. Workshops and consultations are also offered.

General Notes

  • The title of books, journals, and webpages is always in italics
  • All words in the title and subtitle are capitalised, except articles and prepositions
  • If the book is not a first edition, place the edition number after the title followed by the abbreviation, ed. (for example, 3rd ed.)
  • Direct quotes always require page numbers
  • The Works Cited list must be double-spaced, be formatted to have a hanging indent, and have a centred heading
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and works cited list format
  • Check the sample reference list for guidance on the complete list