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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.

Tables & graphs


Use a bibliography entry for book or journal article the figure appears in.


Table comparing populations of U.S.-Mexico border twin cities from 1930 to 2020,

Reference the print book or journal article, and add a figure or table number (if available) and title.

First footnote

1 Mohammed Chaichian. Empires and Walls: Globalization, Migration, and Colonial Domination (BRILL, 2014),198, Table 7.3 Population of U.S.-Mexico Border Twin Cities, 1930– 2020 (projected),

Subsequent footnotes

3 Chaichian, Empires and Walls.


  • If the author's given name is provided, use the full name
  • Words in the titles and subtitles are capitalized, except articles and prepositions
  • If the book is not a first edition, place the edition number after the title of the book, eg: Book Title. 2nd ed.)
  • The author is inverted for the bibliography but not for the footnotes
  • The second line of the bibliography entry is indented
  • The first line of the footnote entry is indented
  • The first footnote includes all of the publication information
  • Subsequent footnotes of the same source include only the author’s surname, the book title, and the page number(s)
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and bibliography format