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Footnotes & Bibliography

Author layout: Footnotes and Bibliography

No. of Authors First Footnote Subsequent Footnote Bibliography

1 Terry Barret, Why Is That Art? (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 40.

2 Barrett,  Why Is That Art?, 52.

Barrett, Terry.  Why Is That Art? New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.


2 Christina Rocha and Michelle Barker, Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change (New York: Routledge, 2011), 103.

5 Rocha and Barker,  Buddhism in Australia, 151.               

Rocha, Christine, and Michelle Barker. Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.


4 John Esposito, Darrell Fasching, and Todd Lewis, World Religions Today (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 522.

6 Esposito, Fasching, and Lewis, World Religions Today, 545.

Esposito, John, Darrell Fashing, and Todd Lewis. World Religions Today.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Four or more

3 Kevin F McCarthy et al., Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate About the Benefits of the Arts (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2001), 54-55.

 6 McCarthy et al., Gifts of the Muse, 68.

McCarthy, Kevin F, Elizabeth Ondaatje, Laura Zakaras, and Arthur Brooks. Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate About the Benefits of the Arts. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2001.


2 Museum Victoria, Treasures of the Museum, Victoria, Australia (Melbourne: The Museum, 2004), 62.

3 Museum Victoria, Treasures of the Museum, 78.

Museum Victoria. Treasures of the Museum, Victoria, Australia. Melbourne: The Museum, 2004.


  • Use et al. in the footnotes after the first author when there are four or more authors
  • Use et al. in the Bibliography after the first seven authors when there are more than seven authors
  • All authors in the footnotes are presented as First Name Last Name 
  • No extra line spacing between footnote entries
  • Single spacing between lines within an entry

Secondary citation

In Section 14.260, The Chicago Guide Online discourages the quoting of secondary sources. However, if it cannot be avoided, make sure to list both the secondary and the original source. 


Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990:6.  Quoted in Robin Walz, Modernism. Edinburgh: Pearson Education, 2008.


First Footnote

1. Astradur Eusteinsson, The Concept of Modernism, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990):6, quoted in Robin Walz, Modernism (Edinburgh: Pearson Education, 2005), 58.

Subsequent Footnotes

4. Astradur Eysteinsson, "The Concept of Modernism," 59.