Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.

Footnotes & Bibliography

Author layout: Footnotes and Bibliography

No. of Authors First Footnote Subsequent Footnote Bibliography

1. Terry Barret, Why is that Art? (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 40

2. Barrett,  Why is that Art?, 52

Barrett, Terry.  Why is that Art? New York: Oxford University Press, 2017


1. Christina Rocha and Michelle Barker, Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change (New York, Routledge, 2011), 103

2. Rocha and Barker,  Buddhism in Australia, 151               

Rocha, Christine and Michelle Barker. Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change. New York:Oxford University Press, 2015


4. John Esposito, Darrell Fasching and Todd Lewis, World Religions Today (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 522

6. Esposito, Fasching and Lewis, World Religions Today, 545

Esposito, John, Darrell Fashing and Todd Lewis. World Religions Today.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2015

Four or more

3. Kevin F McCarthy et al., Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate about Benefits of the Arts (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2001), 54-55

    4. McCarthy et al., Gifts of the Muse, 68

McCarthy, Kevin F, Elizabeth Ondaatje, Laura Zakaras and Brooks Arthur. Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate about the Benefits of the Arts. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2001


2. Museum Victoria, Treasures of the Museum, Victoria, Australia (Melbourne: The Museum, 2001), 62

3. Museum Victoria, Treasures of the Museum, 78

Museum VictoriaTreasures of the Museum, Victoria, Australia. Melbourne: The Museum, 2004


  • Use et al. in the footnotes after the first author when there are four or more authors
  • Use et al. in the Bibliography after the first seven authors when there are more than seven authors
  • All authors in the footnotes are presented as First Name Last Name in the footnotes

Secondary citation

In Section 14.260, The Chicago Guide Online discourages the quoting of secondary sources. However, if it cannot be avoided, make sure to list both the secondary and the original source.


Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990:6.  Quoted in Robin Walz, Modernism. Edinburgh: Pearson Education, 2008


First Footnote

1. Astradur Eusteinsson, The Concept of Modernism, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990):6, quoted in Robin Walz, Modernism (Edinburgh: Pearson Education, 2005), 58

Subsequent Footnotes

4. Astradur Eysteinsson, "The Concept of Modernism," 59