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Referencing

Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.

Print book

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title: Subtitle (X ed.). Publisher.

Levett-Jones, T., Bourgeois, S., & Luke, L. (2009). The clinical placement: A nursing survival guide (2nd ed.). Balliere Tindall Elsevier.

In-text

(Levett-Jones et al., 2009) or (Levett-Jones et al., 2009, p. 78) or

Levett-Jones et al. (2009) state that …

Children's picture book or other illustrated book

Author, A. A. (year). Title (A. Illustrator, Illus.). Publisher.

Fox, M. (2000). Harriet, you'll drive me wild! (M. Frazee, Illus.). Harcourt.

In-text

(Fox, 2000) or (Fox, 2000, p.11)

Notes

  • The title of the book is always in italics.
  • Capitalize the first letter in the title, any proper nouns and the first letter of the subtitle.
  • Direct quotes always require page numbers.
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format.
  • References for children's picture books follow the format for books, but they include the illustrator's name in addition to the author's name.
  • Refer to the APA blog for more children's book examples.
  • Use the copyright date shown on the book's copyright page as the year of publication in the reference, even if the copyright date is different than the release date.
  • Include page numbers (or paragraph numbers in the absence of page numbers) within in-text citations for direct quotes. When paraphrasing, page numbers are recommended but not required.

Edited book

Reference list

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (year of publication). Title of book (X ed.). Publisher.

Liamputtong, P. (Ed.). (2016). Research methods in health: Foundations for evidence-based practice (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.

In-text

(Liamputtong, 2016) or (Liamputtong, 2016, p. 16) or Liamputtong (2016) states that . . .

Notes

  • Substitute the editor’s name for the author's name in the reference and add (Ed.) or (Eds.) for multiple editors.
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format.
  • Include any edition information in the parentheses after the title, without italics.
  • Include page numbers (or paragraph numbers in the absence of page numbers) within in-text citations for direct quotes. When paraphrasing, page numbers or paragraph numbers are recommended but not required.

Chapter in an edited book

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (X ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher.

Poed, S. (2015). The Australian educational landscape. In A. F. Ashman (Ed.), Education for inclusion and diversity (5th ed., pp. 35-64). Pearson.

In-text

(Poed, 2015) or (Poed, 2015, pp. 36-38) or Poed (2015) states that . . .

Notes

  • Use the chapter author/s in-text and as the first author/s in the reference list.
  • The chapter title is not italicised.
  • Enter any editor’s names with the initial first.
  • Use p. for a single page and pp. for a page range in-text.
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format.
  • Include page numbers (or paragraph numbers in the absence of page numbers) within in-text citations for direct quotes. When paraphrasing, page numbers are recommended but not required.

Ebook

Reference list

With doi

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book (X ed.). Publisher. https://doi.org/ xxxx

Gray. T., & Mitten, D. (Eds.). (2018). The Palgrave international handbook of women and outdoor learning. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53550-0

Without doi

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book (X ed.). Publisher. https://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Example where the ebook does not have a doi and is available online via ACU Library (cite as a print book):

Wright, T. S., Cabell, S. Q., Duke, N. K., & Souto-Manning, M. (2022). Literacy learning for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers : key practices for educators. National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Example where the ebook does not have a doi, and is available on the web (include the URL):

Svendsen, S., & Lober, L. (2020). The big picture/Academic writing: The one-hour guide (3rd digital ed.). Hans Reitzel Forlag. https://thebigpicture-academicwriting.digi.hansreitzel.dk/

In-text

(Svendson & Lober, 2020) or (Svendson & Lober, 2020, p.78) or Svendson and Lober (2020) state that . . .

In-text

(no page number/s)

(Gray & Mitten, 2018, Women’s Voices in the Outdoors section, para. 2) or Gray and Mitten (2018, Women’s Voices in the Outdoors section, para. 2) state that . . .

Notes

  • Include either the doi or url after the name of the publisher.
  • If the work has no DOI, the URL is not needed if you read the work via an academic library database (such as Ebsco, Informit, ProQuest, ScienceDirect etc.).
  • Copy and paste the complete url to avoid transcription errors.
  • If the url or doi is very long, a functioning shortened url can be used.
  • The in-text citation is the same as for a book.
  • For direct quotations of material without page numbers add the paragraph number and/or section heading. Refer to the APA Style Blog for examples.
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format.
  • Do not include the name of the database in the reference.
  • When paraphrasing, page numbers or paragraph numbers are recommended but not required.

Chapter in an edited ebook

Reference list

With doi

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxx

Allen-Craig, S., & Carpenter, C. (2018). Outdoor education: Threaded pathways to belonging. In T. Gray, & D. Mitten (Eds.), The Palgrave international handbook of women and outdoor learning (pp. 55-74). Springer International. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53550-0_4

Without doi

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher. https://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Example where the ebook does not have a doi and is available online via ACU Library (cite as a print book):

Van Borsel, J. (2011). Cluttering and Down Syndrome. In D. Ward & K. Scaler-Scott (Eds.), Cluttering: A handbook of research, intervention and education (pp. 90-99). Taylor & Francis. 

Example where the ebook does not have a doi and is available on the web (include the URL):

Smith, H. (2019). Monetizing movement. In M. Graham, R. Kitchin, S. Mattern & J. Shaw (Eds.), How to run a city like Amazon, and other fables (pp. 570-605). Meatspace Press. https://issuu.com/meatspacepress/docs/how_to_run_a_city_like_amazon_and_other_fables

In-text

(Allen-Craig & Carpenter, 2018, p. 56) or Allen-Craig and Carpenter (2018) demonstrate . . .

Notes

  • Incorporate a doi if available.
  • If the work has no doi, the URL is not needed if you read the chapter via an academic library database (such as Ebsco, Informit, ProQuest, ScienceDirect etc.) 
  • Copy and paste the complete url to avoid transcription errors.
  • If the url or doi is very long, a functioning shortened url can be used.
  • Cite the author/s of the chapter in-text and in the reference list.
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format.
  • For direct quotations of material without page numbers, refer to the APA Style Blog.
  • Include page numbers (or paragraph numbers in the absence of page numbers) within in-text citations for direct quotes. When paraphrasing, page numbers or paragraph numbers are recommended but not required.

Republished book, with editor

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title (Ed.). Publisher. https://xxxxxx (Original work published year)

Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (2013). Conditioned emotional reactions: The case of Little Albert (D. Webb. Ed.). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. http://a.co/06Se6Na (Original work published 1920)

In-text

(Watson & Rayner, 1920/2013) or (Watson & Rayner, 1920/2013, p. 17) or

Watson and Rayner (1920/2013) stated that . . .

Notes

  • The book by Watson and Rayner was originally published in 1930. It was edited by Webb and republished in 2013.
  • Sometimes an authored book also credits an editor on the cover. In this case, include the editor in parentheses without italics after the book title.
  • Provide the year of the republication in the main date element of the reference.
  • Provide the year of original publication at the end of the reference in parentheses after the words "Original work published".
  • Include page numbers (or paragraph numbers in the absence of page numbers) within in-text citations for direct quotes. When paraphrasing, page numbers are recommended but not required.

Book published with new foreword by another author

Reference list

Author, A. A., (with Author, B. B.). (year of publication). Title (Ed.). Publisher. (Original work and published year)

Kubler-Ross, E. (with Byock, I.). (2014). On death & dying: What the dying have to teach doctors, nurses, clergy & their own families (50th anniversary ed.). Scribner. (Original work published 1969)

In-text

When citing the main book, include only the name of the book author: (Kubler-Ross, 1969/2014)

When citing the foreword or introduction, include the name of the author of that part (Kubler-Ross, 1969/2014, foreword by Brock, p. xv).

Notes:

  • Use this format when a person other than the original author has added a new part to the work, such as a foreword or introduction.
  • Provide the author of the whole book in the main author element of the reference. Then provide the name of the person who wrote the foreword, introduction, or other part new part, in parentheses, after the word "with".
  • Include page numbers (or paragraph numbers in the absence of page numbers) within in-text citations for direct quotes. When paraphrasing, page numbers are recommended but not required.

Encyclopedias & dictionaries

Reference list

No author

Article or entry name. (year). In A. A. Editor (Ed.),Title of work. Publisher. https://xxxxxxxxxxxxx or https://doi.org

Decompression. (2017). In E. Martin, & T. McFerran, (Eds.), A Dictionary of nursing (7th ed.). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/110.1093/acref/9780198788454.001.0001

Dates and dating (n.d.). In Catholic encyclopedia. Retrieved March 15th, 2020, from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04636c.htm

With author

Davidson, T., & Porter, M. (2015). Eating disorders. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of medicine (5th ed.). Gale. http://link.galegroup.com/apps/pub/9781410317391/GVRL?u=acuni&sid=GVRL

Bell, D., & Morgan, M., (n.d.) 3D Ultrasound. In Radiopaedia. Retrieved February 20th, 2020, from https://radiopaedia.org/articles/3d-ultrasound?lang=us

In-text

Decompression (2017) is defined as…

(Davidson & Porter, 2015) or (Davidson & Porter, 2015, pp. 235-236) or Davidson and Porter (2015) defined . . .

Notes

  • If the entry in a dictionary or encyclopedia does not have an author use the title of the entry e.g. Diabetes.
  • Add a doi (https://doi.org/ xxxx) or url (https://xxxxxxxxxxxxx) if the resource is online.
  • Omit the site name when it is the same as the author.
  • If the encyclopedia is online and constantly updated, use "n.d." as the year of publication and include the date of retrieval.
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format.
  • Include page numbers (or paragraph numbers in the absence of page numbers) within in-text citations for direct quotes. When paraphrasing, page numbers or paragraph numbers are recommended but not required.