Referencing

Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.

Newspapers

Bibliography

News database

Author Last name, First name. "Title of article". Title of newspaper. Month Day, Year. Database name.

Dux, Monica. "A footstep brings history alive". The Age. March 22, 2014. ProQuest Australia & New Zealand Newsstream.

News website

Author Last name, First name. "Title of article". Title of newspaper. Month Day, Year. http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Wilson, David. "The present history". Sydney Morning Herald. August 25, 2018. https://www.smh.com.au/business/workplace/the-present-history-20180825-p4zzpb.html

Footnote

First footnote

1. Monica Dux, "A footstep brings history alive". The Age, March 22, 2014, ProQuest Australia & New Zealand Newsstream.

Subsequent footnotes

2. Dux, "A footstep brings history alive".

Notes

  • If the author's given name is provided, use the full name
  • If there is no identifiable author, start the reference with the title of the article and leave out author details
  • Words in the titles and subtitles are caplitalised, except articles and prepositions
  • If the book is not a first edition, place the edition number after the title of the book, eg: Book Title. 2nd ed.)
  • The author is inverted for the Bibliography but not for the footnotes
  • The second line of the Bibliography entry is indented
  • The first line of the Footnote entry is indented
  • The first footnote includes all of the publication information
  • Subsequent footnotes of the same source include only the author’s surname, the book title, and the page number(s)
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format

Online video

Bibliography

Username or organisation who posted the video. "Title of video". Type of video, duration mm:ss. Month Day, Year. http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Author or presenter Last name, First name. "Title of video". Filmed Month Year at Location. Type of video, duration mm:ss. http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Nerdwriter1. "How to Understand a Picasso". Youtube video, 8:10. May 4, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HGW1DQO1xQ

Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole”. Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Footnote

First footnote

1. Katie Bouman. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like

Subsequent footnotes

2. Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.”

Notes

  • If the author or presenter's given name is provided, use the full name
  • Words in the titles and subtitles are caplitalised, except articles and prepositions
  • The author/presenter is inverted for the Bibliography but not for the footnotes
  • The second line of the Bibliography entry is indented
  • The first line of the Footnote entry is indented
  • The first footnote includes all of the publication information
  • Subsequent footnotes of the same source include only the author’s surname and the video title
  • Type of video might be: Youtube video, video, or file type of downloaded, e.g MPEG video
  • For multiple authors/presenters check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format

Streaming video (TV)

Bibliography

Director Last name, first name, dir. Title of programme. Season X Episode X, "Title of Episode". Aired Month Day, Year, on TV station name. http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Hemingway, Anthony, dir. American Crime Story: The People v. O. J. Simpson. Episode 6, “Marcia, Marcia, Marcia”. Aired March 8, 2016, on FX. https://edutv.informit.com.au/watch-screen.php?videoID=1227115.

Footnote

First footnote

1. American Crime Story: The People v. O. J. Simpson, episode 6, “Marcia, Marcia, Marcia,” directed by Anthony Hemingway, aired March 8, 2016, on FX, https://edutv.informit.com.au/watch-screen.php?videoID=1227115.

Subsequent footnotes

2. Hemingway, "Marcia, Marcia, Marcia".

Notes

  • If the director's given name is provided, use the full name
  • Words in the titles and subtitles are caplitalised, except articles and prepositions
  • The second line of the Bibliography entry is indented
  • The first line of the Footnote entry is indented
  • The first footnote includes all of the publication information
  • The subsequent footnotes include only the director and the title
  • If you cannot find any of the elements of a citation leave them out and include what is available
  • For multiple authors/directors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format

Film from a database

Bibliography

Director Last name, First name, dir. Movie Title. Production Company, Year of release. http://xxxxxxxxxxx

Pike, Andrew and Ann McGrath, dirs. Message From Mungo. Ronin Films, 2014. https://acu.kanopy.com/video/message-mungo

Footnote

First footnote

1. Message From Mungo. directed by Andrew Pike and Ann McGrath, Ronin Films, 2014. https://acu.kanopy.com/video/message-mungo

Subsequent footnotes

2. Message From Mungo.

Notes

  • If the director's given name is provided, use the full name
  • Words in the titles and subtitles are caplitalised, except articles and prepositions
  • The second line of the Bibliography entry is indented
  • The first line of the Footnote entry is indented
  • The first footnote includes all of the publication information
  • The subsequent footnotes include only the director and the title
  • For multiple directors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format

Podcast

Bibliography

Presenter Last Name, First Name. “Title of Episode”. Month Day, Year, in Podcast Name. Produced by Last Name, First Name. Podcast, MP3 audio, mm:ss. http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Major, Sebastian. "Who Was the Queen of the Pirates?". Episode #47 in Our Fake History. Produced by Major, Sebastian and Beth Lorimer. Podcast, MP3 audio, 53:55. http://ourfakehistory.com/index.php/season-2/episode-47-who-was-the-queen-of-the-pirates/#more-467.

Footnote

First footnote

1. Sebastian Major, "Who Was the Queen of the Pirates?" episode #47 in Our Fake History, produced by Sebastian Major and Beth Lorimer, podcast, MP3 audio, 53:55, http://ourfakehistory.com/index.php/season-2/episode-47-who-was-the-queen-of-the-pirates/#more-467

Subsequent footnotes

2. Major, "Who Was the Queen of the Pirates?"

Notes

  • If the director/creator's given name is provided, use the full name
  • Words in the titles and subtitles are caplitalised, except articles and prepositions
  • The second line of the Bibliography entry is indented
  • The first line of the Footnote entry is indented
  • The first footnote includes all of the publication information
  • The subsequent footnotes include only the director and the title
  • If you cannot find any of the elements of a citation leave them out and include what is available. Alternative information to help identify the source may be substituted, e.g. episode number if no posted date is available.
  • For multiple creators check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format