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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our examples are based on the APA. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) Washington DC: APA.

The APA blog is an excellent resource for guidance on referencing unusual items and finding solutions to your other APA referencing questions.

You can also use the Academic Skills Unit's LEO resources on academic writing, referencing, and academic integrity to develop your skills. There are workshops and consultations available where you can get help.

General Notes

  • The title of books, journals, and webpages is always in italics
  • Capitalise the first letter in the title, any proper nouns and the first letter of the title subheading
  • Direct quotes always require page numbers
  • The edition number is not in italics and follows the title: Title (2nd ed.)
  • The second and subsequent lines of a citation in a reference list are indented and double spaced
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format
  • Check the Sample reference list for guidance on the complete list