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Need help with referencing styles? Start with this helpful guide.


Our examples are based on the following style guide: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological AssociationThe official guide to APA style (7th ed.).

The APA blog is an excellent resource for guidance on referencing unusual items and finding solutions to your other APA referencing questions.

You can also use resources from the Academic Skills Unit on: Referencing basicsAPA referencingAcademic integrity and Academic writing to develop your skills. Workshops and consultations are also offered.

General Notes

  • Capitalise the first letter in the title, any proper nouns and the first letter of the title subheading
  • Direct quotes always require page numbers
  • The second and subsequent lines of a citation in a reference list are indented and double spaced
  • Convert DOIs (digital object identifiers) and URLs into live links within the reference list
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format
  • Check the sample reference list for guidance on the complete list