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In-text & Reference list

Author layout: In-text

In-text examples for first and subsequent citations

Reproduced from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (p.177), Washington: American Psychological Association 2010.

Type of citation First citation in text Subsequent citations in text Parenthetical format, first citation in text Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text
One work by one author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004)
One work by three authors Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999)
One work by four authors Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006) Bradley et al. (2006) (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006) (Bradley et al., 1999)
One work by five authors Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008) Walker et al. (2008) (Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008) (Walker et al., 2008)
One work by six or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005)
Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 2003) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 2003) (National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2003) (NIMH, 2003)
Groups (no abbreviation) as authors University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005)


  • When citing two or more works by the same author at the same point, the format is (Duncan, 2015, 2017)
  • When citing two or more works by different authors at the same point, the format is (Duncan, 2017; Gibson, 2018)
  • For works by the same author and same year add suffixes to the publication year e.g. Department of Health (2016a) or (Department of Health, 2016b)


Author layout: Reference list

  • List all authors for up to 7.  If there are 8 or more authors list the first 6 followed by …(3 elipses) then the last author e.g.

Forero, R., McDonnell, G., Gallego, B., McCarthy, S., Mohsin, M., Shanley, C.,  ...Hillman, K. (2012). A literature review on care at the end-of-life in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine International, 2012, 486516. doi:10.1155/2012/486516

  • Include the full name of groups or organisations e.g. Australian Catholic University
  • In a work with no author use the title in place of the author
  • Do not include titles before a name e.g. Dr.
  • If there are hyphenated names retain the hyphen e.g. Zhang, S-L.,
  • Captilise and spell names as they appear in the article or book you are citing.  If the last name begins with a lower case letter retain that form both in-text and in the reference list e.g.

van Mill, D. (2017) Free speech and the state: An unprincipled approach. Retrieved from doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51635-6

Secondary citation

Reference list

Follows the reference list style for the source you are using

Woolley, G. (2014). Developing literacy in the primary classroom. Retrieved from


.... future of literacy. (Kress, as cited in Woolley, 2014)


  • Secondary citations are when the work of one author (the primary source) has been either summarised or directly quoted in another
    author’s work (the secondary source). You must cite the source you have accessed
  • Always use the original source whenever possible
  • Only the reference the quote has come from (the secondary reference) (i.e. Woolley, 2014) should be included in the reference list
  • For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format